What is kidney cancer?
Kidney cancer, hypernephroma or renal adenocarcinoma is a malignant tumour that affects kidney cells and can be restricted to that organ or spread to other parts of the body, explains the best urologist in Noida.
What are the causes of kidney cancer?
The causes of kidney cancer are not entirely clear. It is only known that it begins when some kidney cells undergo mutations in their DNA, which start to grow and multiply in a fast and disordered way, forming a tumour that can expand to other parts of the body (metastases) and cause serious complications, says the urologist in Noida.
Although the causes of kidney cancer are not yet known, some factors seem to contribute to it, such as advanced age, treatment for kidney failure such as dialysis, von Hippel-Lindau disease (an inherited condition that affects the blood vessels of the brain, eyes and other body parts). In addition, smoking, high blood pressure and obesity also interfere negatively. Also, some rare genetic syndromes can increase the risk of developing kidney cancer, states the urologist in Noida.
What is the pathophysiology of kidney cancer?
The kidneys are two organs about the size of a fist, located in the back and upper part of the abdomen, behind the abdominal organs, juxtaposed to the spine, one on each side. The kidneys are responsible for the balance of water and salts in the body and eliminate harmful substances metabolized by the body. Each kidney is made up of a million tiny filtering structures called nephrons.
The most common kidney cancer results from the transformation of the cells of the tubules that form the nephrons, which begin to proliferate abnormally and can invade the organ and even, in some cases, circulate through the body and produce tumours in other parts of the body. (metastases).
There is usually a single tumour, but two or more tumours can arise within one or both kidneys simultaneously. One of the first consequences of the kidney tumour is the breakdown of kidney functions, says the urologist in Greater Noida.
What are the main clinical features of kidney cancer?
Kidney cancer is usually silent or only produces very mild and nonspecific symptoms. It can cause bleeding in the urine and pain in the side of the belly. More intense symptoms and the possibility of palpation of the tumour only occur when the disease is more advanced. At this stage, persistent back pain, abdominal pain, weight loss, fatigue, and intermittent fever may be present. In many cases, the first overt symptoms may result from metastasis rather than from the primitive tumour, explains the urologist in Ghaziabad.
How does a doctor diagnose kidney cancer?
The first tests and procedures used to diagnose kidney cancer include blood and urine tests, ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI. Lastly, a biopsy may be performed, to remove a sample of kidney tissue, to be sent for examination in a pathology laboratory.
The earlier the diagnosis, the greater the chances of cure because it allows identifying the tumour in its early stages, still located in the kidneys and not spread to other parts of the body. Often the discovery of the tumour is accidental, during exams by urologist in Ghaziabad for other purposes or even in routine exams.
How do doctors treat kidney cancer?
Kidney Cancer Treatment in Noida depends on the size of the tumour and whether or not it has metastasized, but surgery is the only definitive treatment. Removal of the kidney, adrenal gland, and regional lymph nodes is the most commonly indicated treatment. When the disease has already produced metastases, the goal of treatment becomes to stop or slow down its progress. For this, the treatment must be with medications that block the fundamental biological processes for the proliferation and survival of cancer cells, especially chemotherapy, explains the urologist in Vaishali.
How does kidney cancer evolve?
In general, the patient’s recovery depends on how severe the cancer has reached. In about a third of cases, the cancer has already spread throughout the body and the patient, at the time of diagnosis, has already developed metastases. For these patients, the chances of cure are considerably reduced, says the urologist in Vaishali.
How to prevent kidney cancer?
There is no absolute way to prevent kidney cancer. However, some measures seem to reduce the incidence: not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight and eating properly, suggests the best urologist in Noida.