A domain name is the address of your website that people visit your website in the browser URL bar.
In basic terms, if your website was a home, then your domain name will be its address.
A more detailed clarification:
The Internet may be a giant network of PCs connected through a global network of cables. Each PC on this network can communicate with other PCs.
To identify them, each PC is assigned an IP address. It’s a series of numbers that identify a specific PC on the internet. A typical IP address seems like this:
Now an IP address such as this is quite difficult to remember. Imagine if you had to use such type of numbers to visit your favourite websites.
Domain names were invented to solve this problem.
Now if you need to visit a website, then you don’t need to enter a long string of numbers. Instead, you’ll visit it by typing an easy to remember domain name in your browser’s address bar. For instance, wpbeginner.com.
How Domain Names Actually Work?
To understand how domain names actually work, we’ll take a glance at what happens once you enter them in your browser.
When entering a domain name in your browser, it initially sends a request to a global network of servers that form the Domain Name System (DNS).
These servers then lookup for the name servers related to the domain and forward the request to those name servers.
For instance, if your website is hosted on Sky Host UAE, then its name server information will be like this:
These name servers are PCs managed by your hosting company. Your corporation will forward your request to the pc where your website is stored.
This PC is called a web server. Its special software installed (Apache, Nginx are two popular web server software). The web server now makes the web page and pieces of info associated with the dedicated server.
To end, it sends this data back to the browser.